Penyakit pada kaki

Minggu, 02 Januari 2011

Sakit kaki: Sebab dan Rawatan

Kita biasa melihat orang yang sakit kaki, walaupun sakit kaki bukanlah dianggap kritikal (jika tidak berkait dengan penyakit-penyakit kritikal seperti diabetes, gout, arthritis), namun sakit kaki akan menyusahkan seseorang untuk bergerak ke sana ke mari.
Terdapat berbagai jenis penyebab sakit kaki dan cara rawatan juga adalah berbeza-beza, mengikut sebab dan tempat sakit tersebut, sama ada di kaki, di tapak kaki, di ibu jari, jari, bahagian tepi kaki dan sebagainya. Selain daripada penyakit gout, arthritis, dan sakit saraf, sakit kaki juga biasanya disebabkan memakai kasut yang tidak sesuai dengan kaki, saluran darah yang kurang lancar di kaki, penyakit kulit, tulang, ligamen, tendon, otot, dan sebagainya.
Berikut disenaraikan beberapa jenis penyebab sakit kaki yang biasa dan cara-cara rawatan asas yang sesuai untuk sakit kaki yang berlainan…

Foot Pain
Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD
Foot pain is one of the most common problems people experience. There are many different causes of foot pain. Foot pain treatments include rest, pain relievers, stretching exercises, and change in habits or footwear. Surgery may be helpful for some people with foot pain.
Causes of Foot Pain
Pain in the foot can be due to a problem in any part of the foot. Bones, ligaments, tendons, muscles, fascia, toenail beds, nerves, blood vessels, or skin can be the source of foot pain.
The cause of foot pain can be narrowed down by location and by considering some of the most common causes of foot pain.
Heel Pain
Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain. The plantar fascia, a band of tough tissue connecting the heel bone to the toes, becomes irritated or inflamed. Heel pain, worst in the morning when getting out of bed, is the most common symptom. Arch pain may also be present.
Treatment for plantar fasciitis includes:
* rest
* calf muscle stretches
* over-the-counter pain relievers
* shoes with good arch support and a cushioned sole

Various other treatments for plantar fasciitis are available.
Heel spurs are abnormal growths of bone on the bottom of the heel bone, which may cause foot pain during walking or standing. Although one in 10 people has heel spurs, only one in 20 of these people will have foot pain. Heel spurs can occur in people with plantar fasciitis, but they do not cause plantar fasciitis. People with flat feet or high arches are more likely to have foot pain from heel spurs.
Treatment for heel spurs include:
* cutout heel pad
* custom-made insert (orthotic) worn in the shoe
* over-the-counter pain relievers
* rest
* surgery (rarely)

A stone bruise is a bruise of the fat pad of the heel. It can occur after stepping on a rock or other hard object, The heel color may not appear bruised, but the heel pain gets better with rest.
A fracture of the heel bone (calcaneus) is the most commonly fractured foot bone. It is most often caused by high impact to the heel — for example, when person has fallen from a height or been in a car accident. Injuries can range from a bone crack from a new vigorous exercise plan to a shattered bone from a high fall. Heel pain, bruising, swelling, limping, or difficulty walking are the main symptoms.
Calcaneus fracture treatment includes:
* rest from weight bearing, often with crutches
* thorough padding of the heel
* splinting or casting to protect the heel bone
* pain relievers
* surgery

Ball of Foot Pain
Metatarsalgia produces pain and inflammation in the ball of the foot. Strenuous activity or ill-fitting shoes are the usual causes.
Treatment for metatarsalgia includes:
* pain relievers
* change to more comfortable footwear
* inserts for the shoes to relieve pressure on the ball of the foot

Morton’s neuroma is thickening of the tissue around the nerve between the bases of the toes (usually between the third and fourth toes). Foot pain, odd sensations, or numbness over the ball of the foot are the usual symptoms. It is more common in women and can be a result of wearing high heels or tight shoes.
Morton’s neuroma treatment includes:
* shoe inserts to reduce pressure on the nerve.
* steroid injection into the area of foot pain
* pain relievers
* surgery (occasionally)

Sesamoiditis occurs when tendons around the big toe are injured and inflamed.
Treatment for sesamoiditis includes:
* rest
* ice
* wearing a foot pad under the toe in a comfortable shoe
* wearing low-heeled shoes
* steroid injections may be helpful in some cases

Arch Pain
Arch pain is most often caused by plantar fasciitis, which can affect the heel, arch, or both. Plantar fasciitis treatment is the same, regardless of the location of foot pain (see above). For persistent plantar fasciitis, an injection with a mixture of a steroid and local anesthetic can be helpful.
Fallen arches — or flat feet — occurs when the arches of the feet flatten out (often when standing or walking), causing foot pain and other problems. Flat feet can be treated with shoe inserts (orthotics), shoe adjustments, rest/ice, using a walking case or brace, or physical therapy. Occasionally, surgery is necessary.
Toe Pain
Arthritis , including gout, can cause pain in the toes. Gout is an inflammatory condition in which crystals periodically deposit in joints, causing severe pain and swelling. The big toe is often affected by gout.
Treatment for gout includes:
* rest
* medication such as colchicine or prednisone
* pain relievers
* daily medication and diet restriction to prevent gout attacks

A bunion (hallux valgus) is a bony prominence along the edge of the foot, next to the base of the big toe. Bunions may occur in anyone, but are often caused by ill-fitting footwear in women. Hammer toes often occur with bunions.
Bunion treatment includes:
* Changing to more comfortable shoes; if this is unsuccessful in relieving foot pain, surgery may be considered.
Hammer toe occurs when the near joint in the toe is bent, creating a hammer-like appearance. Wearing tight shoes is the main cause of hammer toe.
Claw toe occurs when the joint at the end of a toe may become unable to straighten, causing the toe to point down or up. Irritation of the feet and other feet problems may develop, without special footwear to accommodate the claw toe.
Treatment of hammer toe and claw toe includes:

* changing to better-fitting footwear; avoiding high heels and tight shoes
* stretching exercises for toes and toe joints
* shoe inserts
* orthotics
* surgery may sometimes be necessary

Ingrown toenails occur when skin on one or both sides of a toenail grow over the nail. Ingrown toenails may be painful or lead to infections.
Treatment for ingrown toenail includes:
* Soak the foot in warm water four times a day.
* Once daily, wedge a piece of gauze between the nail and wet skin.

Turf toe refers to pain at the base of the big toe resulting from athletic activities. Turf toe is an overuse injury usually caused by strain from running or jumping. Turf toe may also be a form of sesamoiditis or sesamoid fracture.
Toe fracture may occur in any of the bones of the toes. Minor fractures may only require rest, ice, and pain relievers; serious fractures can require foot immobilization and surgery. Any suspected fracture should be evaluated by a doctor.
Toe sprain may occur when jamming or stubbing of the toe damages the tendon or soft tissues of the toe. If no fracture is present, the pain and swelling of a toe sprain should subside within days.
Hallux rigidus (toe arthritis) is a degenerative arthritis (osteoarthritis) at the base of the big toe. Pain and stiffness of the joint, worsening over time, are symptoms. Treatment can include pain relievers and stretching exercises. Surgery may be needed in some cases.
Corns are thick buildups of tough skin on a point of irritation or pressure on the foot or toe. Corns often have a horn-like appearance.
Callus is a wider area of tough skin buildup on the toes or feet, in response to irritation or pressure. Calluses and corns are generally caused by poor-fitting footwear.
Treatment for corns and calluses include:
* wear better-fitting shoes
* use a pumice stone or other abrasive to wear down the extra skin

Sesamoid fracture is a fracture of small bones (sesamoids) that are embedded in tendons attaching to the big toe. Pain in and around the big toe is the main symptom.
Treatment for sesamoid fracture includes:
* rest
* ice
* elevation
* pain relievers
* immobilization of the toe and foot

Surgery may be needed for serious sesamoid fractures.
Pain on the Foot’s Outer Edge
The fifth metatarsal bone (along the outer foot edge) is a commonly fractured bone in the foot. Pain, swelling, and bruising along the outer foot edge after an injury are symptoms.
Treatment for any foot fracture should include medical attention, X-rays, pain relievers, rest, ice, and elevation. Immobilization and surgery may be necessary for some foot fractures.
Foot Pain That’s Anywhere or Everywhere
Neuropathy, or nerve damage in the feet, is most often caused by diabetes. Foot pain can be burning, stinging, or feel like electricity. Neuropathy foot pain can occur anywhere in the feet.
Treatment for neuropathy focuses on the underlying cause, such as diabetes. Medications that act on nerves can also be helpful in reducing foot pain.
Trauma can mean anything from a major crush injury, to the repetitive damage caused by wearing poor-fitting shoes. The foot pain from trauma can occur anywhere on the feet.
Tendinitis is inflammation and irritation of tendons, the bands attaching muscles to bones. Tendons run along all the surfaces of the foot, and can cause foot pain in many different locations. Treatment for tendinitis includes rest and pain relievers; sometimes steroid injections can help. Rarely, surgery is necessary for foot pain from tendinitis.

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